The brand new constitution envisioned a dramatic shift to the left within the South American nation, increasing the position of presidency and calling for an financial mannequin that would chop inequalities and assist elevate up the poor.
However for a lot of Chileans, the proposed adjustments had been too drastic. With greater than 95 p.c of poll packing containers tallied Sunday night time, about 62 p.c of voters rejected the constitution, whereas 38 p.c authorised it, in accordance with Chile’s electoral authority.
The outcomes of the vote introduced an finish to an formidable democratic experiment that started as an try and unify a rustic in disaster. In 2019, Chile’s streets erupted in protest, powered by working- and middle-class individuals battling excessive costs and low wages. In a society lengthy held up as a logo of prosperity within the area, hundreds of Chileans poured out their anger at a authorities they felt had forgotten them.
Politicians negotiated an answer to ease the unrest: They pledged to jot down a brand new structure, changing the model written beneath the brutal army regime of Gen. Augusto Pinochet. The next yr, Chileans overwhelmingly voted in favor of drafting a brand new constitution.
However as a substitute of uniting the nation, the method ended up dividing it as soon as once more.
The vast margin of defeat delivered a painful blow to the nation’s younger leftist president, Gabriel Boric, Chile’s most left-leaning chief since Salvador Allende, who died by suicide in the course of the 1973 army coup that toppled his socialist authorities.
Boric, a 36-year-old former lawmaker who helped negotiate the deal to jot down the structure, famously pledged to voters final yr that “if Chile was the cradle of neoliberalism, it’s going to even be its grave.” However the proposed structure’s failure will make it tougher for the president to hold out his daring agenda.
Now he and his nation will likely be left to start out from scratch, it appeared Sunday night time. To write down a brand new constitution, constitutional consultants say, Chileans will most likely should carry the matter to congress, launch a brand new election for a brand new meeting, and start the drafting course of anew.
A do-over was the precise final result many Chileans had hoped for. In a Santiago resort on Sunday night time, a gaggle of the constitution’s opponents celebrated by waving Chilean flags within the air and chanting, “Chile is, and will likely be, a rustic in liberty!”
The 388-article doc confronted intense criticism that it was too lengthy, too left-leaning, and too radical in its financial, judicial and political proposals. Like different carefully watched referendums world wide — from Colombia’s peace deal to Brexit — the talk was marred by misinformation, disinformation and confusion over the interpretation of such an exhaustive doc.
But most of the issues centered on a core situation of nationwide identification. The proposal described Chile as a “plurinational” nation made up of autonomous Indigenous nations and communities.
“It divides Chile, and Chile is one nation,” stated María Yefe, a 65-year-old housekeeper who voted to reject the structure within the capital of Santiago on Sunday. “We’re going to be much more divided than we are actually.”
On the identical polling place, 42-year-old María Barros, a mom of two, captured the sentiments of many throughout the nation: “Chileans agree we have to change the structure,” she stated. “However not like this.”
After voting Sunday from his hometown of Punta Arenas, a metropolis close to the southern tip of Chile’s Patagonia area, Boric was requested by reporters if, within the case of a vote towards the proposed structure, he would name for a political settlement to start out a rewrite. The president pledged to “convene a broad nationwide unity … and transfer ahead with this course of.”
“It is a historic second, for which I feel it’s essential that we should always all, impartial of our alternative, really feel profoundly proud,” Boric stated. “Within the tough moments we went by means of as a rustic, we selected as a path, as a solution to resolve our variations, an advance in additional democracy and by no means in much less.”
The proposal would have enshrined sure civil rights which have by no means earlier than been included in a structure, emphasizing most of the priorities of the leftist social actions led by youthful Chileans: Gender equality, environmental protections, Indigenous and LGBTQ rights, and authorized entry to abortion.
It could have assured entry to high-quality training, well being care and water. It could have granted rights to nature and animals and required the federal government to deal with the results of local weather change. It was regarded as the primary structure that may have required gender parity throughout authorities and public and public-private firms.
For Nel González, a 36-year-old lady voting within the middle of town, the proposal held out the potential for a brand new sort of authorities that prioritizes the social rights of its individuals.
“At this time is a really hopeful day for Chile,” she stated. “At stake is a structure for a rustic that’s far more democratic, and far more equal.”
It was written by an uncommon elected meeting that drew members and political newcomers from throughout the nation who had not often felt represented in nationwide politics. The 155-member constitutional meeting was composed equally of women and men, and 17 seats had been reserved for the nation’s 10 Indigenous communities.
However it was made up of largely impartial and left-leaning members, and confronted criticism from those that felt the meeting uncared for to include the views of conservatives.
The conference was additionally stricken by controversies that helped gas a marketing campaign to discredit it. One distinguished delegate was elected to the meeting on guarantees of free, high-quality well being care, citing his personal experiences affected by leukemia. However he resigned after information broke that he was faking his sickness.
Nonetheless, the conference marked the primary time a gaggle of democratically elected individuals sat down — in a clear and open course of — to draft a structure for the nation.
“This structure was written by elected individuals, common and customary individuals. That provides it great worth,” stated Mario Opazo, a 59-year-old who voted in favor of the proposal within the middle of Santiago on Sunday. “It may need some imperfections, however the bulk of it was constructed with the needs and by the individuals of this nation.”
Alberto Lyon, a lawyer who voted within the prosperous neighborhood of Las Condes, stated he voted in favor of writing a brand new structure. “However I assumed they might write a structure that was Western,” the 66-year-old stated. He described the proposed model as “indigenist” and “within the model of Venezuela.”
“It’s a catastrophe,” Lyon stated. “It adjustments your complete political system.”
For Bárbara Sepúlveda, Sunday’s poll was a vote for a doc she helped write. Regardless of its defeat, the 37-year-old leftist constitutional delegate stated, “I can’t assist however really feel like I’m a part of an development, of a triumph.”
“In a rustic the place it appeared like nothing might change,” she stated, “we now see that something is feasible.”
John Bartlett contributed to this report.